Built up roof membranes, referred to by the acronym BUR, have been in use in the U.S. for more than 100 years. These roof systems are commonly referred to as "tar and gravel" roofs. BUR systems generally are composed of alternating layers of bitumen and reinforcing fabrics that create a finished membrane. Built up roofs generally are considered to be fully adhered if applied directly to roof decks or insulation.
The bitumen typically used in BUR roof systems is asphalt, coal tar or cold-applied adhesive. The asphalt or coal tar is heated in a kettle or tanker and then applied by mop or mechanical spreader. Asphalt is a petroleum product refined from crude oil; coal tar is derived from the distillation of coal. Cold-applied adhesives typically are solvent-based asphalts that don't have to be heated in a kettle or tanker.